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Georgia State Guide

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 Georgia officially became a state in 1788.Georgia’s history has a first name of James Oglethorpe in it as he was the first settler to get settled in Savannah on Yamacraw Bluff on the Savannah River. Georgia is the largest state east of the Mississippi River. Georgia's Geography is very diverse from the mountains of northeast Georgia to the coast of southeast Georgia.

History of Georgia

Georgia has a very rich and diverse history that spans almost three centuries with many important events. Georgia is in certain respects is historically distinctive as being the largest state east of the Mississippi, the youngest and southernmost of the thirteen colonies, and by 1860 the most populous southern state.

 James Oglethorpe was the first European traveler to get settled in Georgia James Oglethorpe was the first European traveler to get settled in Georgia in 1733. Oglethorpe and more than 100 colonists entered the place known as Savannah on February 12, 1733 . Georgia was the last among the 13 colonies to be formed by James Oglethrpe.

Georgia became the fourth state when in 1787 two Georgians, Abraham Baldwin and William Few Jr., signed the new U.S. Constitution at the Constitutional Convention, also in Philadelphia, (following Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey) to enter the Union when it ratified the Constitution on January 2, 1788. Georgia officially became a state in 1788.

Georgia started the first all women college in the country in the year of 1836. Georgia became a war zone during civil war in 1861 with the major battles taking place within its border. Georgia bypassed most of the action during the Revolutionary War. Georgia was the last Southern state to rejoin after it was allowed to rejoin the Union in 1870. Georgia was the first of 10 states to vote against ratification of the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote.

Georgia became main focus during war due to its efficiency in agriculture, transportation and industries. Some of the most important battles of the famous war were fought on Georgia soil, including Kennesaw Mountain, Chickamauga, and Resaca, while the battles of Bald Hill (Atlanta), Ezra Church, Peachtree Creek, and Jonesboro were primary turning points during the Atlanta campaign of 1864.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt passed a new deal Rural Electrification Authority (REA)Farming took a downturn due to the pests and climate in 20th century. President Franklin D. Roosevelt passed a new deal Rural Electrification Authority (REA) to help Georgia's economy but Georgians had to find new means of employment due to the suffering economy. During this time, Georgia entered in Aviation industry and afterwards Georgia became a hub of activity for the airline industry, and by 1941, Atlanta's airport became home to Delta Air Lines and Eastern Air Lines.

The United States entry into World War II (1941-45) brought the Great Depression to an end, as industrial production for the war effort created thousands of new jobs around the nation. Georgia in particular felt these economic benefits, as soldiers arrived for training at Fort Benning in Columbus, at that time the largest infantry training post in the world.

At the end of 20th century, Georgia became a hub of industries with major firms entering the market including CNN, Coca-Cola and Home Depot. The economy further boosted when Atlanta hosted the 1996 Summer Olympics and many Olympic lovers visited the state.

As Georgia progresses through the 21st century, the spirit of resilience continues from the Alabama border to the coast of Savannah. Residents of the historic Peach State are still making economic and social progress as they add to the rich legacy of Georgia [1].

Georgia Historical facts

  • The name Georgia originated from King George II.
  • Georgia was the thirteenth of the 13 original colonies. Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733.
  • Georgia became a state on January 2, 1788.
  • Savannah is Georgia’s oldest city.
  • Georgia has had five capitals: Savannah (1777-1785), Augusta (1786-1789), Louisville (1789-1807), Milledgeville (1807-1867), Atlanta (1868-present)
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in Atlanta on January 15, 1929. His childhood house and museum is maintained by the U.S. Department of Interior’s National Parks Service. A federal holiday was established in 1986 for every third Monday in January to be set aside in recognition of Dr. King.
  • Atlanta hosted the 1996 Olympics [2].

Georgia Historic Sites [3]

Chief Vann House State Historic Site

This historic site was built by James Vann who became a Cherokee Indian leader and wealthy businessman in the 1790s. He constructed a beautiful brick home that soon became famous in 1804. It has a 'floating' staircase, beautiful hand carvings and fine antiques.

Contact Details
82 Georgia Hwy 225 N,
Chatsworth Georgia 30705

This site tells about the fine antiquesDahlonega Gold Museum State Historic Site

This site tells about the fine antiques and about the thousands of prospectors flocked into the Cherokee Nation in north Georgia. It is the oldest courthouse in Georgia.

Contact Details
#1 Public Square,
Dahlonega Georgia 30533

Etowah Indian Mounds State Historic Site

This site comprises of defensive ditch, a plaza, village area, mounds and borrow pits. Many artifacts show how the natives decorated themselves with shell beads, tattoos, paint, complicated hairdos, feathers and copper ear ornaments.

Contact Details:
813 Indian Mounds Rd SE,
Cartersville GA 30120

Fort King George State Historic Site

It contains the brick ruins of its early sawmill operation and a small graveyard and is located at the mouth of the Altamaha river.

Contact Details:
1600 Wayne St, Darien GA 31305

Fort Morris Historic Site

This Revolutionary War fort was captured by the British in 1779 and used again by Americans during the War of 1812. Today, visitors can stand within the earthwork remains and view scenic Saint Catherine's Sound.

Contact Details:
2559 Fort Morris Rd,
Midway Georgia 31320

Hofwyl-Broadfield Plantation Historic Site

A museum features silver from the family collection and a model of the plantation during its heyday. Tour the 1850s antebellum home and museum. A guided tour shows us the home with family heirlooms, 18th and 19th century furniture and Cantonese china.

Contact Details:
5556 U.S. Hwy 17 North,
Brunswick Georgia 31525.

Jarrell Plantation Historic Site

In 1895 a planer, barn, workshop, syrup evaporator, sugar cane press, sawmill, cotton gin, gristmill, shingle mill, and outbuildings were added to the Jarrell Plantation farm.

Contact Details:
711 Jarrell Plantation Rd,
Juliette Georgia 31046

Jefferson Davis Memorial Historic Site

President Jefferson Davis was taken prisoner when they camped in this pine forest, not knowing that pursuit was so close behind on May 9, 1865. Today, a monument marks the spot where he was arrested. This is a 13 acre historic site that includes a museum, short trail, picnic tables, gift shop and group picnic shelter.

Contact Details:
338 Jeff Davis Park Road,
Fitzgerald Georgia 31750

Lapham-Patterson House Historic Site

This house is famous for its architecture. It has 19 rooms , have 45 doors and 53 windows. It was built in1884-85. The house was well equipped with its own gas lighting system, hot and cold water, indoor plumbing and modern closets. Due to its outstanding architectural significance, the Lapham-Patterson House was named a National Historic Landmark in 1975.

Contact Details:
626 N. Dawson St, Thomasville
Georgia 31792

New Echota Cherokee State Historic Site

It was the site of the first Indian language newspaper office, a court case that carried over to the Supreme Court. Visitors can see several original and reconstructed buildings, including the council House, Court House, print shop, Missionary Samuel Worcester's home, an 1805 store, outbuildings, smoke houses, corn cribs and barns, and Visitor Center.

Contact Details:
1211 Chatsworth Hwy NE,
Calhoun Georgia 30701

Pickett's Mill Battleground State Historic Site

This is one of the best preserved Civil War battlefields in the nation. Visitors can travel roads used by Federal and Confederate troops, see earthworks constructed by them, and walk through the same ravine where hundreds died.

Contact Details:
432 Mt Tabor Church Rd,
Dallas Georgia 30132

house and grounds, view exhibits and displaysRobert Toombs House Historic Site

Robert Toombs was a legend in his own time. He was a successful planter and lawyer who led a turbulent career as state legislator, U.S. Congressman and Senator. Visitors can tour the house and grounds, view exhibits and displays and can enjoy a dramatic film portraying an elderly Toombs relating his story to a young reporter.

Contact Details:
216 East Robert Toombs Ave.,
Washington GA

Roosevelt's Little White House State Historic Site

Visitors can visit his Franklin D. Roosevelt's home which he built in 1932, while governor of New York. The area includes the Walk of American Stone and Flats, the servant and guest quarters, and the historic pools complex that first brought the future president here.

Contact Details:
401 Little White House Rd,
Warm Springs GA

Wormsloe State Historic Site

A breathtaking avenue lined with live oaks leads to the tabby ruins of Wormsloe, the colonial estate constructed by Noble Jones, one of Georgia's first settlers. Visitors can view artifacts excavated from Wormsloe and a film about the founding of the 13th colony.

Contact Details:
7601 Skidaway Rd,
Savannah Georgia 31406

State BirdState's symbol

Bird: Brown Thrasher
Flower: Cherokee Rose
Crop: Peanut
Reptile: Gopher Tortoise
Amphibian: Green Tree Frog
Tree: Live Oak
Fish: Largemouth Bass
Mineral: Staurolite
Vegetable: Vidalia Onion
Marine Mammal: Right Whale
Fruit: Peach
Insect: Honeybee
Song: Georgia On My Mind

Geography of Georgia

Extending inland from the coast is a low coastal plainGeorgia has physiographic provinces: Appalachian Plateau, the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont, the Valley and Ridge, the Appalachian Plateau, the Blue Ridge. Georgia is the largest state of the Mississippi River. The Ridge and Valley extends northeast to southwest through the state, connecting portions of Georgia and Tennessee with eastern Alabama. The ecology of Georgia is widely varied with geological base with many different soil types and elevations ranging from sea level to more than 4,700 feet and a diverse [4]. Extending inland from the coast is a low coastal plain that covers the southern half of the state.

The state is well drained by many rivers, including the Savannah, which forms the boundary with South Carolina; the Ocmulgee and the Oconee, which merge in the southeast to form the Altamaha; the Chattahoochee, which forms part of the Alabama boundary and joins with the Flint in the extreme southwest corner of the state to form the Apalachicola; and the Saint Marys, which rises in the large Okefenokee Swamp and forms part of the Georgia-Florida line. The Coastal Plain has two parts, the Upper Coastal Plain and the Lower Coastal Plain. In the Upper Coastal Plain, which covers the central and southwestern portions of the state, agriculture is the dominant activity. The core of the state's peanut, cotton, and vegetable industry is here. The Lower Coastal Plain includes the actual coastal area of the state and the Sea Islands, as well as the Okefenokee Swamp.

Geographical Regions of Georgia

Sea Island is approximately five miles long Sea Island

Sea Island is an internationally known resort and located off the Georgia coast near St. Simons Island in Glynn County. Sea Island is approximately five miles long and one and a half miles wide at its widest point.

Little St. Simons Island

Little St. Simons Island lies in Glynn County across the north end of great St. Simons Island. The north side of Little St. Simons fronts on the mouth of the Altamaha River and the Atlantic Ocean.

an environmental region of the Coastal Plain ProvinceLower Coastal Plain and Coastal Islands

Lower Coastal Plain and Coastal Islands are environmental region of the Coastal Plain Province, and contain some of the state's most well-known geographic features—the coastal barrier islands and the Okefenokee Swamp.

The Upper Coastal Plain

The Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia is bounded on the north by the fall line and extends south to Florida and east to the upper terraces of the Lower Coastal Plain.

St. Simons island

It is most developed and second-largest of Georgia's barrier island. The island is located in the Hampton River, and north of Jekyll Island, Glynn County on Georgia's coast and lies east of Brunswick, south of Little St. Simons Island.

Wassaw Island

Wassaw Island's forests were never cleared for timber, cotton, or cattle. The island today is said to be the best representation of what Georgia's barrier islands looked like before Europeans arrived.

Georgia Lakes

Georgia has many lakes, most of them man-made from the damning of rivers. These lakes are an invaluable source of drinking water and recreation for Georgians, plus help in the manufacture of hydro-electric power. Some of the lakes are controlled by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, some by the Georgia Power Company.

Georgia Climate

The climate in Georgia is a major reason so many people continue to move to the state. While climate varies among the state’s six land regions, all areas of the state are colored by four well-defined seasons:

  • A warm summer has an average temperature of 82 degrees.
  • Autumn is brisk, with brilliant fall foliage throughout the state, particularly in the mountains
  • Winters has average temperatures in the low 40s and light snowfall several times a year in the north
  • Springtime is glorious, as Georgia is famous for its dogwoods, azaleas and other flora

Georgia Demography

  • Population, 2014 estimate: 10,097,343
  • Population, 2013 estimate: 9,994,759
  • Population, 2010 (April 1) estimates : 9,688,681
  • Persons under 5 years, percent, 2013: 6.7%
  • Persons under 18 years, 2013: 24.9%
  • Persons 65 years percent, 2013: 12.0%
  • Female persons, percent, 2013: 51.1%
  • White alone, 2013 : 62.5%
  • Black or African American alone, percent, 2013: 31.4%
  • American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent, 2013: 0.5%
  • Asian alone, percent, 2013: 3.7%
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent, 2013: 0.1%
  • Two or More Races, percent, 2013: 1.9%
  • Hispanic or Latino, 2013: 9.2%
  • White alone, not Hispanic or Latino percent, 2013: 54.8% [5]

Georgia's General Facts [2]

  1. Colony: Founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733; 13th colony
  2. Statehood: January 2, 1788; 4th state
  3. Capital: Atlanta, since 1868
  4. Motto: "Wisdom, justice, and moderation"
  5. Nicknames: Empire State of the South; Peach State
  6. Total Population: 9,687,653; 9th most populous in United States (as of 2010 census)
  7. Land Area: 57,513 square miles (as of 2010 census); 24th largest in United States
  8. Coastline: 100 miles
  9. Highest Point: Brasstown Bald, 4,784 feet
  10. Lowest Point: Sea level at the Atlantic Coast
  11. Counties: 159
  12. Electoral Votes: 16 (as of the 2010 U.S. census)
  13. U.S. Congress: 2 senators; 14 representatives (as of the 2010 election)
  14. Governor: Nathan Deal, 2011—
  15. Latitude: 30 31' N to 35
  16. Longitude: 81 W to 85 53' W
  17. Length & Width: 300 miles long and 230 miles wide
  18. Geographic Center: in Twiggs County, 18 miles southeast of Macon
  19. Highest Recorded Temperature: 112F, July 24, 1953, at Louisville
  20. Lowest Recorded Temperature: -17F, January 27, 1940, at CCC Camp F-16
  21. Average Temperature: from a high of 92.2F to a low of 32.6
  22. Georgia has the second most counties in the United States with 159. Texas has the most with 254.
  23. Georgia is the 24th largest state (land area) in the United States, the 9th most populous state (as of 2010) and the largest state east of the Mississippi River.
  24. Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport is known as the busiest airport in the world according to the Airports Council International.
  25. Surrounding States: Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama

Georgia Economy

Poultry production is centered in GainesvilleGeorgia has always been an agricultural state. Georgia's leading industry is textiles industry. Tobacco is the principal crop in the central and southern sections of the state, peanuts in the southwest. Georgia is noted for it’s four ‘P’ products - peaches, peanuts, pecans, and poultry. Georgia is known for its fine marble.The country imports nearly all its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. Poultry production is centered in Gainesville. Georgia's main economic activities include mining of manganese, copper, and gold, developing agricultural products such as citrus fruits, grapes, and hazelnuts and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. Georgia is easily the nation's largest producer of peanuts. Savannah is one of the South’s leading seaports. Atlanta is hub for Automobile manufacturing. Elberton is noted for granite production. Other major manufactures include transportation equipment, foods, paper products, and chemicals. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Warm Springs for the treatment of poliomyelitis, is now a well known historical landmark. Georgia's other attractions include Okefenokee Swamp; Chattahoochee and Oconee national forests; Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park; Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park; and Stone Mountain, near Atlanta, on which is carved a Confederate memorial.


Georgia now produces more than forty varieties of commercial peaches, which are divided into two general categories - freestone and clingstone. Georgia produces close to half of the peanuts produced annually in the United States and is Georgia’s official state crop. Over 450 species of local vine are bred in Georgia. Poultry production accounts for over half of Georgia’s total agricultural output, and is a vital component of Georgia’s economy. Georgia is the nation’s largest pecan producing state. Georgia’s apple production is centered in the northeastern part of the state. Georgia's main economic activities include mining of manganese, copper, and gold, developing agricultural products such as citrus fruits, grapes, and hazelnuts. Georgia is the nation's largest producer of peanuts.

Georgia Tourism

Georgia has many natural and man made tourist attractions. There are many state parks and historic sites, national parks and wildlife refuges, lakes, rivers, museums, wineries, plus many other attractions.

Personal, sales and Property taxes.Georgia's Taxes

The Georgia Department of Revenue works toward enforcement of liquor control laws, collection and administration of mineral taxes and the wholesale distribution of alcohol beverages. The mission of the department is to provide efficient and accurate distribution of all sales and to maintain timely deposits on all tax payments received.

Personal income tax

Georgia collects income taxes from its residents at the following rates. For single taxpayers:

  • 1 percent on the first $750 of taxable income.
  • 2 percent on taxable income between $751 and $2,250.
  • 3 percent on taxable income between $2,251 and $3,750.
  • 4 percent on taxable income between $3,751 and $5,250.
  • 5 percent on taxable income between $5,251 and $7,000.
  • 6 percent on taxable income exceeding $7,000.

Sales taxes

Georgia state sales tax is 4 percent. Prescription drugs, certain medical devices and groceries are exempted from sales and use tax.

Personal and real property taxes

Real property is taxable in the county where the land is located. Personal property is taxable in the county where the owner has his or her permanent legal residence.

Government of Georgia

The constitution outlines the three branches of government in Georgia. The legislative branch is personified in the bicameral General Assembly. The Governor is the head of the executive branch. The Judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court.

The Executive branch comprises of Governor, Lt. Governor, Secretary of State, Attorney General, Attorney General, Labor Commissioner, State School Superintendent, Agriculture Commissioner, Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner.

The legislative branch, also called the Georgia General Assembly, consists of The State Senate (56 members) and The House of Representatives (180 members) [6].

The judicial branch consists of six different courts that hear cases:

  • Municipal Court which handles cases of traffic citations, Ordinance violations
  • Magistrate Court which handles cases of minor offenses, Warrants
  • Probate Court which handles cases of marriage licenses,estates and wills
  • Juvenile Court which handles cases of Crimes done by juveniles
  • State Court which handles cases of misdemeanors and Civil cases
  • Superior Court which handles cases of felonies, divorce and Civil cases

For more information on Government of Georgia click here.

Contact Details
206 Washington Street
111 State Capitol
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Phone: 404-656-1776
Fax: 404-657-7332

the Georgia Department of Transportation works to preserve safety on roadwaysGeorgia Transportation

The department is devoted for the better movement of people and goods through the state in a well-timed and proficient manner, the Georgia Department of Transportation works to preserve safety on roadways and alleviate congestion on the interstates. The planning, constructing and maintenance of Highways is done by the department. They are highly involved in bridge, waterway, public transit, rail, general aviation, bike and pedestrian programs. For more information click here.

Contact Details
600 West Peachtree NW
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone Number: 404-631-1990

Georgia Department of Public Health

The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) works in preventing disease, grievance and disability. It also
promotes health and well-being and preparing for and responding to disasters from a health perspective. Their main functions includes Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Infectious Disease and Immunization, Epidemiology, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Environmental Health, Maternal and Child Health, Emergency Medical Services, Pharmacy, Nursing, Volunteer Health Care, the Office of Health Equity, Vital Records, and the State Public Health Laboratory. For more information click here.

Contact Details
2 Peachtree St. NW, 15th Floor
Atlanta, GA 30303
Phone Number: 404-657-2700
Email: DPHConstituentServices@dhr.state.ga.us

Georgia's Education

Georgia ranks 1st in the U.S. in connecting the K-12 education system with early learning, higher education, and the world of work, according to Education Week. The Georgia Department of Education oversees public education throughout the state, ensuring that laws and regulations pertaining to education are followed and that state and federal money appropriated for education is properly allocated to local school systems. The department also informs parents, teachers, government officials and the media of education-related news.

Contact details
2054 Twin Towers East
205 Jesse Hill Jr. Dr. SE
Atlanta, GA 30334
Website: www.doe.k12.ga.us

Some of the best Colleges and Universities in Georgia:


  1. Georgia History
  2. Facts
  3. Historic sites
  4. Geography
  5. Demography
  6. Government
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