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Government of Georgia

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The Government of Georgia has three branches of government:
Executive, Legislative and Judicial.
The government of Georgia has three branches of government: Executive, Legislative and Judicial.Image Source:http://georgia.gov/
The constitution outlines the three branches of government in Georgia. The legislative branch is personified in the bicameral General Assembly. The Governor is the head of the executive branch. The Judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court.

Executive Branch of Georgia

The Executive branch comprises of Governor, Lt. Governor, Secretary of State, Attorney General, Attorney General, Labor Commissioner, State School Superintendent, Agriculture Commissioner, Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner

The Governor of Georgia is the chief official of executive branch of Illinois. He has the supreme executive power and is responsible for the execution of the laws. Like the President, the Governor is limited to two four-year terms and is directly elected by the residents of state. The Governor appoints many agency heads, but some cabinet level officials are elected statewide. [1].

Contact Details
Office of the Governor
206 Washington Street
111 State Capitol
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Phone: 404-656-1776
Fax: 404-657-7332
Website- http://gov.georgia.gov/

The Lieutenant Governor of Georgia is the second highest executive and runs separately from the Governor. He can be elected even if he or she is from a different political party. The Lieutenant Governor can serve several terms. He is the President of the Senate; the Lt. Governor supervises debate in that chamber and controls the movement of legislation through the chamber. If the Governor dies or otherwise can no longer fulfill his duties, the Lieutenant Governor serves the Governor's unexpired term.

Contact Details
Office of the Lieutenant Governor
240 State Capitol
Atlanta, GA 30334
Phone: (404) 656-5030
Fax: (404) 656-6739
Website- http://ltgov.georgia.gov/

The Secretary of State of the U.S. state of Georgia is an elected official with many responsibilities, including supervising elections and maintaining public records and people. They also investigate election fraud and enforcing state election laws.

Contact Details
2 Martin Luther King Jr. Dr.
Suite 802 Floyd West Tower
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Phone: (404) 656-2871
Fax: (404) 651-9531

Attorney General of Georgia serves as the attorney and legal advisor for all state agencies, departments, authorities and the Governor. It also represents the State of Georgia in all capital felony appeals before the Supreme Court of Georgia and in all civil cases before any court. It can initiates civil or criminal actions on behalf of the State of Georgia when requested to do so by the Governor. By law the Attorney General does not provide legal advice to private citizens. [2].

Contact Details
214 State Capitol
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
404.656.2881
Website-http://law.ga.gov/meet-attorney-general

Labor commissioner of Georgia is responsible for executing the state's labor policies, operating its unemployment insurance and rehabilitation programs and producing statistics. The Georgia Department of Labor offers a wide range of services to job seekers and employers. These include administration of Georgia's unemployment insurance, employment service, provision of workforce information to the public and private sectors, and oversight of child labor issues.

Contact Details
200 Constitution Ave. NW
Washington DC 20210
1-866-4-USA-DOL
1-866-487-2365
TTY
Website- www.dol.gov

Georgia Superintendent of Schools is the administrative head of the Georgia Department of Education, which supervises the Georgia’s K-12 public education system. He also manages the policies of the state Board of Education and managing operations for the school system.

Contact Details
Georgia Department of Education
205 Jesse Hill Jr. Drive SE
Atlanta, GA 30334
Website- http://www.gadoe.org/Pages/Home.aspx

Agriculture Commissioner heads the Georgia Department of Agriculture, which is responsible for regulating and promoting Georgia's agriculture industry. Georgia Department of Agriculture was established in 1874. The department's responsibility is to protect and promote agriculture and consumer interests and to ensure an abundance of safe food and fiber for Georgia, America, and the world by using state-of-the-art technology and a professional workforce. [3].

Contact Details
Georgia Department of Agriculture
19 Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr., S.W
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Tele: (404) 656-3600
Toll Free: (800) 282-5852
Commissioner Gary W. Black
E-mail: gary.black@agr.georgia.gov

Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner heads the Georgia Office of Insurance and Safety Fire which is
Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner heads the Georgia Office of Insurance and Safety Fire which is responsible for regulating the state's insurance industry and ensuring fire safety in the state.Image Source: http://georgia.gov/
responsible for regulating the state's insurance industry and ensuring fire safety in the state. [4].

Contact Details
Two Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive
West Tower, Suite 704
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Main Telephone: 404-656-2070
Toll Free: 800-656-2298
Fax: 404-657-8542
Website- http://www.oci.ga.gov/

Legislative Branch of Georgia

The legislative branch, also called the Georgia General Assembly, consists of The State Senate (56 members) and The House of Representatives (180 members) [5].

The Secretary of the Senate is as an official officer of the Georgia State Senate. The Office of the Secretary of the Senate was created in 1789 and has successfully served the citizens of Georgia along with the Georgia State Senate for over 200 years [5]. The Secretary of the Senate is elected by a vote of the Senators for a two-year term.

Contact Details:
353 State Capitol
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Phone: (404) 656-5040
Fax: (404) 656-5043

View the complete list of Senators here

Senate Committees-The committee system is the major part of the legislative process. The committee does what the Senate and the House of Representatives could not do as well by running as a whole.

The committee process comprises of Standing Committees, Study Committees, Conference Committees, Joint Committees.

Standing Committees- Standing committees are managed by the Senate and the House of Representatives for the administration of their operations. The committee is also responsible for the inspection of the legislation.

Study Committees- Study committees are those that have been appointed to perform a specific task or study a specific issue given to them.

Conference Committees- Conference committees were created to reconcile differences. If a majority of the members from either house refuses to move then the bill could fail. So to avoid this, the committee is created. However, this rarely happens.

Joint Committees- Joint committees are composed of both House and Senate members.

View the complete list of Georgia’s House of Representative here.

The speaker of the House serves as the presiding officer of this legislative body. The speaker is directly elected by fellow Members of the House to serve as their leader at the beginning of each two year term.[5].

Judicial Branch

The judicial branch consists of six different courts that hear cases:
  • Municipal Court which handles cases of traffic citations, Ordinance violations
  • Magistrate Court which handles cases of minor offenses, Warrants
  • Probate Court which handles cases of marriage licenses,estates and wills
  • Juvenile Court which handles cases of Crimes done by juveniles
  • State Court which handles cases of misdemeanors and Civil cases
  • Superior Court which handles cases of felonies, divorce and Civil cases

Municipal courts

Municipal courts are the busiest courts in Georgia with more than 400 judges managing more than 800,000 cases per year. These courts were created to handle issue warrants, traffic offenses, conduct preliminary hearings, local ordinance violations and in some cases handles cases like shoplifting and marijuana. Municipal court judges are often appointed by the mayor, some are elected. There are more than 350 municipal courts operating in Georgia [6].

The Council of Municipal Court Judges was created to improve municipal courts and the administration of justice. The Council is responsible throughout the state in the execution of their duties and promotes and assists in their training.

Contact Details
Council of Municipal Court Judges
Administrative Office of the Courts
244 Washington Street, Suite 300
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
(p) 404-656-5171
(f) 404.651-6449
Email: murphyla@gaaoc.us

Magistrate Court

Magistrate courts are county courts that issue warrants, hear minor criminal offenses and civil cases. A chief magistrate is appointed in each county by local legislation whereas other magistrates may be appointed by the chief magistrate. Magistrate court generally runs cases of civil disputes including county ordinance violations, tenant cases etc. In criminal cases these courts issue search warrants to law enforcement and also warrants for the arrest of a particular person. No jury probation takes places in magistrate court and civil cases are often argued by the parties themselves instead of attorneys. Magistrate Court (Civil Division) hears cases involving civil demands of $15,000 or less[7]

Probate Court

All probate court judges supervises vows of issue marriage and office. These court judges may also hear certain misdemeanors, traffic cases and violations of state game and fish laws in counties where there is no state court. They also serve as election supervisors and make appointments to certain local public offices. Judges of probate court judges are elected to four-year terms in countywide. To be eligible candidate for judge of the probate court he/she must be 25 years of age, a high school graduate, a U.S. citizen and a county resident for at least two years preceding the election. In counties with population over 96,000, a candidate for probate judge must have practiced [8] law for seven years and is at least 30 years of age.

Juvenile Court

Juvenile courts handle all cases that belong to disadvantaged and abandoned children under 18 years of age; antisocial
Juvenile courts handle all cases belongs to disadvantaged and abandoned children under 18 years of age; antisocial offenses and traffic violations committed by juveniles.Image Source:georgiacourts.org/
offenses and traffic violations committed by juveniles. The juvenile courts also hear cases involving approval to marriage for minors, recruitment of minors in the military, and deals with a child resident who is taken into custody in another state.

The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice

It is a versatile agency that serves the state’s young criminals up to the age of 21. They work meticulously for justice of youths and shape the young lives in the agency’s care so they can take responsibility for their crimes as well as help them become contributing members of society.

Contact Details
Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice
Main Number: 404-508-6500
Fax Number: 404-508-7289
3408 Covington Highway
Decatur,Georgia 30032

State courts

These courts hear cases such as traffic violations, issue search and arrest warrants, hold hearings in criminal cases and try civil matters not reserved for the superior courts. A state court is recognized by local legislation introduced in the General Assembly.

Superior Court

Superior Court handles cases involving real estate matters, civil disputes, serious crimes (felonies), and family and domestic related issues. The superior court exercises both civil and criminal jurisdiction. You can find your local Superior Court by the county you live in.

To know more Click here

The Council of Superior Court Judges of Georgia (CSCJ) helps the Superior Court Judges and the Judicial Circuits by providing managerial support, research, programming, court automation and communications.

Contact details:
18 Capitol Square, Suite 104
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
404-656-4964

There are also several avenues for appealing decisions in these lower courts:
  • Court of Appeals
  • Georgia Supreme Court

The Georgia Court of Appeals

The Georgia Court of Appeals was established in 1906 [9] and is the intermediary appellate court in Georgia. It consist twelve judges who serve in four divisions. The Court of Appeals handles all cases except which involves constitutional questions, divorce and alimony, the construction of wills, habeas corpus, murder, election contests, extraordinary remedies, land title disputes and cases where original appellate jurisdiction lies with the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeals may also put legal queries to the Supreme Court.

Contact Details
Court of Appeals of Georgia
47 Trinity Avenue S.W., Suite 501 Atlanta, GA 30334
Phone: (404) 656-3450
Hours: 8:30AM to 4:30PM M-F

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the highest court of state. Supreme Court evaluates decisions made in criminal and civil casesThe Supreme Court is the state's highest court. Supreme Court evaluates decisions made in civil and criminal cases by a trial court judge or by the Court of Appeals. by a trial court judge or by the Court of Appeals. Cases in this court also involve all criminal cases involving a sentence of death and all criminal cases. No trial takes place at the appellate level, nor do the parties appear before the court. If attorneys present oral arguments, these are heard by the entire court. The Chief Justice and the Presiding Justice serves as the officers of the court for two-year terms. The Chief Justice supervises at official sessions of the Supreme Court and conferences of the justices.

The Clerk's office is open Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. E.S.T/E.D.T.

Contact Details
244 Washington Street
Room 572, State Office Annex Building
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Phone: (404) 656-3470
Fax: (404) 656-2253

Georgia’s State Agencies

Georgia Department of Public Health

The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) works in preventing disease, grievance and disability. It also
The Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) works in preventing disease, grievance and disability. Image source: http://dph.georgia.gov/
promotes health and well-being and preparing for and responding to disasters from a health perspective. DPH’s main functions includes Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Infectious Disease and Immunization, Epidemiology, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Environmental Health, Maternal and Child Health, Emergency Medical Services, Pharmacy, Nursing, Volunteer Health Care, the Office of Health Equity, Vital Records, and the State Public Health Laboratory.

Contact Details
2 Peachtree St. NW, 15th Floor
Atlanta, GA 30303
Phone Number: 404-657-2700
Email: DPHConstituentServices@dhr.state.ga.us

Georgia Department of Transportation

The department is devoted for the better movement of people and goods through the state in a well-timed and proficient manner, the Georgia Department of Transportation works to preserve safety on roadways and alleviate congestion on the interstates. The planning, constructing and maintenance of Highways is done by the department. They are highly involved in bridge, waterway, public transit, rail, general aviation, bike and pedestrian programs.

Contact Details
600 West Peachtree NW
Atlanta, GA 30308
Phone Number: 404-631-1990

Georgia Department of Agriculture

The Georgia Department of Agriculture works to protect and promote agriculture and consumer interests and ensure
The Georgia Department of Agriculture works to protect and promote agriculture and consumer interests and ensure an abundance of safe food and fiber for the citizens.Image Source: http://agr.georgia.gov/
an abundance of safe food and fiber for the citizens. The Department administers a range of programs which all have a primary goal - to maintain the state's viable farm industry and protect the consuming public.

Contact Details
19 Martin Luther King Jr. Dr., SW
Atlanta, GA 30334
Phone Number: 404-656-3600
Email: GDA.Communications@agr.georgia.gov

Georgia Department of Public Safety

The mission of the Georgia Department of Public Safety is to provide a safe environment for residents by working cooperatively with all the levels of government and visitors to state. They are focused mainly on the implementation of traffic laws and examination of traffic crashes, the Department of Public Safety will support the hard work of all public safety departments to diminish crime, apprehend those who commit them, and respond to natural and man made disasters.

Contact Details
University Police
Georgia State University
P.O. Box 3981
Atlanta GA 30302-3981

Georgia Department of Revenue

It is a main tax collecting and tax law enforcement department for the state, the Georgia Department of Revenue provides information about taxes for individuals, corporations, and tax professionals.

Contact Details
Website:
dor.ga.gov
Address:
1800 Century Blvd. NE
Atlanta, GA 30345
Phone Number: 855-406-5221



References
:
  1. Governor of Georgia
  2. Attorney General
  3. Commissioner of Agriculture
  4. Insurance and Safety Fire Commissioner
  5. Legislative Branch
  6. Municipal Courts
  7. Magistrate Courts
  8. Probate Courts
  9. Georgia Court of Appeal

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